About Vitamin D:
- Vitamin D2
- Vitamin D3
- Sources of Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Deficiency
- Vitamin D3 Receptors (VDR)
- Vitamin D Binding Proteins (DBP)
- Ideal Dosage of Vitamin D
- Contraindications for Vitamin D
Vitamin D Status
- Regardless of if Vitamin D3 (a pre-homone called cholecalciferol) is produced in the skin or ingested in the diet, it is biologically inert, requiring two successive hydroxylations to become biologically active:
first in the liver on (carbon 25) to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]
(a pro-hormone named calcifediol aka calcidiol)
then in the kidneys (on carbon 1) to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D],
which is the biologically active form of vitamin D (a hormone named calcitriol)
With the identification of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, methods were developed to
measure these metabolites in the circulation.
1,25(OH)D3 is the biologically active form of vitamin D,
however its measurement is NOT an ideal indicator for vitamin D status
- 25(OH)D turns out to be a MUCH better barometer for vitamin D status.
The only way to determine if a person is vitamin D deficient or sufficient
is to measure their circulating level of 25(OH)D.
- Most experts agree that:
- a level of <20 ng/mL is considered to be vitamin D deficiency
- a level of 21-29 ng/mL is considered to be insufficient.
A level >30 ng/ml is considered to be a healthful level for all
children and adults to maintain throughout the year.
Vitamin D3 and Bone Health
- Since its discovery in 1920, Vitamin D has been linked to bone health.
- Vitamin D helps support normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.
- aids in the absorption of calcium
- targets Vitamin D receptor sites in the small intestine
- dramatically increases the uptake of calcium.
- regulates the remodeling of bone
- interacts with the parathyroid glands
- controls bone resorption and serum calcium levels.
- increases reabsorption of phosphate by the renal tubules
stimulates the production of Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP's),
which (when activated by Vitamin K) shuttle calcium ions:
- FROM where they should NOT be:
- heart valves
- arterial linings
- TO where they SHOULD be:
- Without adequate vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle, soft, or misshapen . . .
- characteristic of the following bone diseases:
- a bone disease related to the failure of the osteoid to calcify
- affects children who are vitamin D deficient.
- causes progressive softening and weakening of the bones' structure.
- results in bones becoming flexible and gradually molded by forces such as bearing weigh exerted on them.
- Children with rickets may not grow to their full potential and may develope deformities of the body structure such as knonk-knees or bowed legs.
- At the early part of the 20th century, rickets remained one of the most devastating health consequences of the Industrial Revolution.
- It been estimated that more than 90 percent of children in Northern Europe and 80 percent of children in Boston and New York City showed evidence of this bone deforming disease.
- As early as 1822 Sniadecki identified the importance of sun exposure for preventing growth retardation and skeletal deformities associated with rickets noting that children living in the inner city of Warsaw had a high incidence of rickets whereas children living in adjacent rural areas did not.
- This was followed by the insightful observations in 1889 by Palm that children living in London and Glasgow were plagued with rickets, while children who lived in Asia and India were free of the disease. He recommended that children from the inner cities be exposed to sunlight and encouraged sunbathing as a preventive and treatment strategy.
- At that time however, the medical community, found it inconceivable that skin exposure to sunlight could have any beneficial effect for bone health.
- In the 1930s, public health initiatives in the USA, recommended fortifying every cup of commercially sold milk with 100 iu's of vitamin D.This fortification program is still in effect today, and the incidence of rickets in the USA is very low.
- Osteomalacia is basically the same disease as rickets but occurring in adults.
- Seniors in northern climates and adults, who do not receive direct sunlight for at least 45 minutes per weekk are most susceptible.
- Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by fragile bones, resulting in an increased risk of bone fractures. It is estimated that over 25 million adults in the United States have, or are at risk of developing osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is most common in post menopausal women.
- Adequate calcium and vitamin D throughout life, along with physical activity, may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later life.
- Arthritis and its associated symptoms occur because of the breakdown of cartilage in the joints.
- Just as vitamin D may help support healthy bones, it may also help support the maintainance of healthy cartilage.
- There are many ongoing research studies, looking into the relationship between low intakes of vitamin D and the risk of getting arthritis. The research is very promising.
Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Health
Vitamin D status in coronary artery disease: association with IL-35 and TGF-β and disease severity
Rasa F, Naderi N, Eftekhar E, Mansoori E, Rahimzadeh M. ndocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2018 Apr 25. doi: 10.2174/1871530318666180426101756
- 81 patients were divided into single (n= 20), double (n=20) and triple (n=20) vessel disease groups and compared to no vessel disease (No VD) group (n=21). Interleukin (IL) -35 and TGF-β were measured using ELISA. Vitamin D was measured using Electrochemiluminescence assay.
- The results suggested that, although decreased TGF-β and IL-35 plasma levels correlate positively with decreased vitamin D levels and negatively with severity of CAD, only TGF-β has a significant association with vitamin D deficiency in CAD patients. It seems that the anti-atherosclerotic effect of vitamin D is at least partly attributed to the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines especially TGF-β.
- High Blood Pressure
Associations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D With the Blood Pressure Response to Maximal Exercise Among Healthy Adults
Zaleski A, Taylor B, Armstrong B, Puglisi M, Clarkson P, Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Aug 30:1-21. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0424.
- Insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with high resting blood pressure (BP).
- In this study, the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the peak systolic BP (SBP) response to exercise, (a predictor of future hypertension) was investigated.
Vitamin D and Dental Health
Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis
Anbarcioglu E, Kirtiloglu T, Ozturk A, Kolbakir F, Ac?kgoz G, Colak R. Oral Dis. 2018 Aug 31. doi: 10.1111/odi.12968
- Vitamin D deficiency is linked to several infectious and inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease.
- This study evaluated the association between vitamin D concentration and periodontal disease, both Aggressive (AgP) and chronic (CP) periodontitis.
- Researchers suggest that gven the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in AgP patients, vitamin D deficiency may be a potential risk factor for AgP.
- 2004 Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population
Dietrich T, Joshipura KJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Bischoff-Ferrari HA., Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):108-13.
- This study evaluated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin+D3 concentrations are associated with Periodontal disease (PD) in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
- The researchers analyzed data on periodontal attachment loss (AL) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin+D3 concentrations from 11 202 subjects aged > or =20 y were . Mean AL was modeled in a multiple linear regression with quintile of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin+D3 concentration as an independent variable. The model was stratified by age and sex and was adjusted for age within age groups, race or ethnicity, smoking, diabetes, poverty income ratio, body mass index, estrogen use, and gingival bleeding.
- The researchers concluded that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin+D3 concentrations may be associated with PD independently of BMD. Given the high prevalence of PD and vitamin D deficiency, these findings may have important public health implications.
Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis
- Michael Holick, MD, PhD is the director of the Vitamin D Research Lab at Boston University Medical Center, and is considered by many to be the nation's leading authority on vitamin D.
according to Hollick:
"It's been well-known that if you live at a higher latitude, where there's less sun exposure, you're at a higher risk of developing MS", Conversely, if you live in a sunny climate where vitamin D Vitamins can be easily absorbed year-round from sunlight for your first 10 years, it imprints on you a decreased MS risk that can last a lifetime"
- 2018 Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review
Martina B. Sintzel, Mark Rametta, Anthony T. Reder; Journal ListNeurol Therv.7(1); 2018 JunPMC5990512
- a comprehensive exploration of the the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the level of serum vitamin D and MS risk and disease activity
- large, prospective, observation studies, epidemiological studies, and studies using new approaches such as Mendelian randomization was conducted.
- ongoing research included in this review suggest that the level of serum calcidiol level affects the risk of developing MS and also modifies disease activity in MS patients.
- 2018 High-dose ω-3 Fatty Acid Plus Vitamin D3 Supplementation Affects Clinical Symptoms and Metabolic Status of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
Kouchaki E1, Afarini M, Abolhassani J, Mirhosseini N, Bahmani F, Masoud SA, Asemi Z., J Nutr. 2018 Aug 1;148(8):1380-1386. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy116.
- This study aimed to determine the effects of ω-3 fatty acid and vitamin D cosupplementation on the disability score and metabolic status of patients with MS.
- This was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and inflammation as primary outcomes and oxidative stress biomarkers and metabolic profile as secondary outcomes.
- Patients, aged 18-55 y, were matched for disease EDSS scores, gender, medications, BMI, and age (n = 53) and randomly received a combined 2 x 1000 mg/d ω-3 fatty acid and 50,000 IU/biweekly cholecalciferol supplement or placebo for 12 wk.
- Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and end of intervention to measure different outcomes. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess treatment effects on outcomes adjusting for confounding variables.
The researchers concluded:
"overall, taking ω-3 fatty acid and vitamin D supplements for 12 wk by patients with MS had beneficial effects on EDSS and metabolic status."
- Dr. Kassandra Munger Sc.D from the Harvard School of Public Health has been researching the role Vitamin D plays in MS, since 2004.
- 2004 Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis
Munger KL, Zhang SM, O'Reilly E, Hernan MA, Olek MJ, Willett WC, Ascherio A., Neurology. 2004 Jan 13;62(1):60-5.
- Landmark study reviewed 20 years of data from Nurses' Health Study
- Researchers concluded that the data supported a protective effect of vitamin D intake on risk of developing MS.
Vitamin D3 and Diabetes
The relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and diabetes is a widely researched subject. Studies through out the world have been conducted on animal, infant and adult subjects.
A double blind randomized clinical trial to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and hepato-renal markers in type 2 diabetes and obesity
Safarpour P, Vafa MR, Amiri F, Janani L et al. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2018 Apr 28;32:34. doi: 10.14196/mjiri.32.34. eCollection 2018.
- According to the recent studies, vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with progress in type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.
- This clinical trial study assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure, and biomarkers of liver and kidney in type 2 diabetic patients
- 90 patients with type 2 diabetes and serum 25-Hydroxy vitamin D levels of less than 30 ng/ml were recruited from "Besat Diabetes Clinic" in Rasht, North of Iran. The subjects took 50000 IU vitamin D supplements or placebo for 8 weeks. The resaearchers assessed the levels of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D, glucose and lipid profiles, oxidative and inflammatory indices, liver and kidney biomarkers, blood pressure, and sun exposure time, physical activity before and after intervention, and compared them between cases and controls
- The Rearchers concluded that weekly supplementation with 50000 IU vitamin D for 8 weeks may be effective by improving HbA1C and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A number of studies have taken place in northern Finland, which has the highest reported incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world and interestingly only receives two hours of sunlight during December.
In one such study, researchers followed more than 10,000 pregnant women living in northern Finland, who were due to give birth in 1966. New mothers recorded whether they gave vitamin D supplements to their children and how much they provided, during the first year of life. Researchers tracked the number of children who developed type 1 diabetes over 40 years.
Another norwegian study was conducted to find out whether the intake of vitamin D taken by either mothers during pregnancy or by children during the first year of their life, was linked to lowering the risk of type 1 diabetes among children.
The nationwide case-control study was done in Norway and consisted of 545 children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 1,668 control participants. Families were sent a questionnaire in the mail and were required to answer questions pertaining to the number of times they used cod liver oil or other vitamin D supplements.
Researchers were very impressed with the study results.Read Less
Vitamin D and Cancer
It is believed that vitamin D and its metabolites, play an important part in the regulation of genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and proliferation.
These important properties have prompted researchers to investigate if there is a link between vitamin D deficiency and cancer.
Laboratory, animal, and epidemiologic studies have looked at the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cancer. Clinical studies have focused on the four most common cancers:
The results of these studies have been quite compelling and many researchers in this field are very excited about future studies.
For more than 50 years, documentation in the medical literature suggests regular sun exposure is associated with substantial decreases in death rates from certain cancers and a decrease in overall cancer death rates. Recent research suggests this is a causal relationship that acts through the body's vitamin D metabolic pathways. For instance, some evidence points to a prostate, breast and colon cancer belt in the United States, which lies in northern latitudes under more cloud cover than other regions during the year. Rates for these cancers are two to three times higher than in sunnier areas.
Dark-skinned people require more sun exposure to make vitamin D. The thickness of the skin layer called the stratum corneum affects the absorption of UV radiation. Black human skin is thicker than white skin and thus transmits only about 40 percent of the UV rays for vitamin D production. Darkly pigmented individuals who live in sunny equatorial climates experience a higher mortality rate (not incidence) from breast and prostate cancer when they move to geographic areas that are deprived of sunlight exposure in winter months. The rate of increase varies, and researchers hesitate to quote figures because many migrant black populations also have poor nutrition and deficient health care that confound statistics somewhat.
Although excessive sun exposure may give rise to skin cancer, researchers as early as 1936 were aware that skin cancer patients have reduced rates of other cancers.Read Less
Vitamin D3 and Obesity
Have you ever wondered why some people can eat all they want and not get fat, while others are constantly battling extra pounds? Could the answer have to do with vitamin D and calcium status?
This question is the subject of vast research. Researchers are looking for a link between Vitamin D deficiency and obesity.
- 2018 Vitamin D supplementation and body fat mass: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Golzarand M, Hollis BW, Mirmiran P, Wagner CL, Shab-Bidar S., Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 Mar 21. doi: 10.1038/s41430-018-0132-z.
- The objectives of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin D3 and PFM pooling together observational studies and RCTs
- PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Scopus were comprehensively searched from inception to September 2016. The Fisher's Z (SE) of correlation coefficient and mean (SD) of changes in PFM from baseline were used to perform meta-analysis in observational studies and RCTs, respectively. To determine potential source of heterogeneity, subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted
- The researchers concluded that 25(OH)D level is inversely correlated with PFM but cholecalciferol supplementation had no effect on PFM.
- 2018 Effect of vitamin D supplementation on anthropometric indices among overweight and obese women: A double blind randomized controlled clinical trial
Roosta S, Kharadmand M, Teymoori F, Birjandi M, Adine A, Falahi E., Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2018 Jul;12(4):537-541. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.03.022. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
- The aim of this study was to investigate effect of vitamin D supplementation on anthropometric indices among women with overweight and obesity.
- This double blind randomize clinical trial was conducted on 66 overweight and obese women. Those in intervention group received oral supplement of vitamin D 50,000 IU (1250 mcg) per 25 day and in control group participants received placebo for 3 months. Anthropometric indices were measured before and after 3 months intervention. Before the intervention a 24-h dietary recall (3 days) were used to assess dietary intake of individuals. Independent t test and multivariate repeated measure were used to data analysis.
- The researchers concluded that supplementation with vitamin D 50,000 iu/day for 3 months resulted in a significant reduction in anthropometric indices in women with obesity and overweight with normal primary 25(OH) D3 serum levels.
- 5,000 iu's of Vitamin D3
- 250 capsules (per bottle)
1 capsule per day
(or as directed by your physician)
Dmax is a great value . . .
While many Vitamin D3 products come in a 60 count bottle, each bottle of Dmax contains 250 capsules. Based on the single bottle price ($22.95), the cost of D Max is less than $2.75 per month. (even less when buying larger quantities)
- 1 bottle
- 2 bottles $21.95 each
- 3 bottles $20.95 each
- 6 bottles $18.95 each
- 12 bottles $16.95 each
- 1 bottle
- 2 bottles $27.95 each
- 3 bottles $26.95 each
- 6 bottles $25.95 each
- 12 bottles $23.95 each
Vitamin D3 stimulates the production of Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP's) such as Osteocalcin (OC) and Matrix gla protein (MGP). These VKDP are critical in shuttling calcium from where it should NOT be (heart valves, arterial linings and kidneys) to where it SHOULD be (bones and teeth). VKDP's can only carry-out this vital function if they have been activated by Vitamin K2.
Everyone should take Vitamin K2, but if you take Vitamin D3, you especially need Vitamin K2 to meet the increased demand that Vitamin D3 stimulates.
Unlike most Vitamin K formulas, Ultra K provides a whopping amount of both MK-4 AND MK-7. The amounts provided are not only generous (5mg of MK-4 AND 100mcg of MK-7), but are also pharmaceutical grade (MK-4 is 99% trans form, MK-7 is 70% trans form) and European sourced (NOT from China).
If Vitamin K2 is NOT yellow (as Ultra K is), it is NOT pharmaceutical grade and is probably from China.
Ultra K was formulated as the perfect one to one compliment to Dmax. The suggested dosage is one capsule of Ultra K for each capsule of Dmax taken (together at the same time).
Coral Calcium "Marine" is intended for those "purists" who want a "marine grade" coral calcium formulation without any additional vitamins. Coral Calcium "Marine"comes in a 90-count bottle. Each 3 capsule serving contains a whopping 1,500 mg. of marine grade Coral Calcium from Okinawa, Japan plus 816 iu's of Vitamin D
- 1 bottle - Coral Calcium:
- 2 bottles - Coral Calcium:
Limited Time Offer
Buy 2 (at regular price)
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that's 3@ $10.97 each
- 12 bottles - Coral Calcium:
"Marine" $9.95 each
- 24 bottles - Coral Calcium:
"Marine" $9.45 each
Coral Calcium "Marine Plus" is based on the Coral Calcium formula Bob Barefoot used to sell on TV, Serving size upgraded. Comes in 90-count bottle. Each 3 capsule serving contains 1,500 mg. of "marine grade" Coral Calcium from Okinawa, Japan + 816 iu's of Vitamin D as well as vitamins A, B, C & E + Aquamin, Cesium and folates
- 1 bottle - Coral Calcium:
- 2 bottles - Coral Calcium:
Limited Time Offer
Buy 2 (at regular price)
Get 1 FREE:
that's 3@ $11.37 each
- 12 bottles - Coral Calcium:
"Marine Plus" $10.45 each
- 24 bottles - Coral Calcium:
"Marine Plus" $9.95 each
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